According to Harvard Business Review's James H. Gilmore and B. Joseph Pine II, there are four different customization methods: collaboration, adaptability, beauty and transparency.
The two described collaborative customization as a type of discussion or research involving various customers to help them determine their specific needs. Based on this information, companies can meet customer needs by customizing products for them.
Adaptive customization involves manufacturing products that offer only one standard but are customizable. In this way, the product can be changed directly by the user. Gilmore and Pine use an example of a lighting system that can be programmed by the user to provide the only desired lighting effect.
Cosmetics customization offers different standard products for different customers. As Gilmore and Pine explain, “When customers use products in the same way, cosmetic methods are appropriate and differ only in the way they want. Standard products are not custom or customizable, but Specifically packaged for each customer."
Transparent customization provides individual customers with unique products and services without having to let them know that these products and services are customized for them. It involves observing customer behavior to determine their needs and then customizing the seemingly standard products for them.